Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Episode 22 - Americans All/Americanos Todos

"Americans All - Let's Fight for Victory"
1942-1945
(see citation below)

 

Welcome to the supplemental post for Episode 22. In this episode I discuss the Bracero Program or what was officially known as the Mexican Farm Labor Program. This was an agreement between the Mexican and United States government that allowed Mexican agricultural and railroad workers into the U.S. for short term work contracts during WWII. This program ran from 1942-1964.

The first Braceros arriving in Los Angeles by
train in 1942
wikimedia commons 

Photograph of Mexican Laborers
see citation below

Braceros Listening to Radio
see citation below
Braceros in Living Quarter
see citation below

Serving Braceros a Meal
see citation below

Serving Braceros a Meal
see citation below


The cookbook feature for this episode is Elena's Famous Mexican and Spanish Recipes published in 1944 by Elena Zelayeta.

By Elena Zelayeta, 1944




 


The first recipe I tried was a suggested pineapple dessert using Leche Quemada. I used the shortcut she recommends of boiling a can of sweetened condensed milk for 3 hours to caramelize it. It makes a delicious, thick caramel pudding! (To see some modern tips for making what we now call dulce de leche you can read this recipe HERE!)




The second recipe I tried was for Torta Azteca - casserole Aztec style. This consisted of eight layers of lightly fried tortillas with chorizo, sliced boiled egg, Monterey cheese, and a simmered tomato sauce with herbs in between. Then you bake it to melt everything together. To serve, you slice it like a cake and serve with refried beans. It was quite delicious! 

Torta Azteca






















RESOURCES

** A special thank you to Ximena Martin for sharing some of her wonderful research resources with me!

Websites:

Bracero History Archive

http://braceroarchive.org/about


The Bracero Program

The Digital Public Library of America

Franky Abbott, Hillary Brady. Mexican Labor and World War II: The Bracero Program. 2015. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America, http://dp.la/primary-source-sets/mexican-labor-and-world-war-ii-the-bracero-program . (Accessed September 21, 2021.)


Bracero Oral History Project

Institute of Oral History, College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas at El Paso

https://www.utep.edu/liberalarts/oral-history/

https://scholarworks.utep.edu/bracero/


National Hispanic Heritage Month

https://www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov/about/


NPR Article about the history behind why we call September 15-October 15 National Hispanic Heritage Month

https://www.npr.org/2021/09/17/1037741009/yes-were-calling-it-hispanic-heritage-month-and-we-know-it-makes-some-of-you-cri


Smithsonian Office of Educational Technology (search “Bracero”)

https://learninglab.si.edu/about/Smithsonian-Office-of-Educational-Technology


Bracero Program

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracero_program

Making Dulce de Leche

Images:

Mexican Farm Workers Who have been Accepted for Farm Labor in the U.S. through the Braceros Program. Department of Agriculture, National Archives, 1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/7452192


Photograph of Mexican Laborers

Department of Agriculture, National Archives, date unknown.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/596405


“Americans All - Let’s Fight for Victory”, Office of War Information. National Archives, 1942-1945.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/513803


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Serving Braceros a Meal.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015, https://learninglab.si.edu/q/r/130428


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Serving Braceros a Meal.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015, https://learninglab.si.edu/q/r/126801


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Braceros in Living Quarter.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 1 Nov. 2015, https://learninglab.si.edu/q/r/85409


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Bracero Camp.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 31 Oct. 2015, https://learninglab.si.edu/q/r/70237


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Braceros Listening to Radio.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015, https://learninglab.si.edu/q/r/122125

The first Braceros arriving in Los Angeles by train in 1942, Oakland Museum of California, Wikimedia Commons.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BraceroProgram.jpg


Books:

The Bracero Program: A Historical Investigation (educational workbook with primary source materials)

https://americanhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/Bracero%20Historical%20Investigation.pdf


Mexican Labor & World War II: Braceros in the Pacific Northwest, 1942-1947 by Erasmo Gamboa

https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/029597849X/


Defiant Braceros: How Migrant Workers Fought for Racial, Sexual, and Political Freedom by Mireya Loza

https://www.amazon.com/Defiant-Braceros-Migrant-Political-Borderlands/dp/1469629763/


Monday, September 20, 2021

Episode 21: Who's Vital for Victory? Veterinarians!

 

Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association
August 1943

Welcome to the supplemental material and recipes for Episode 21 all about veterinarians and their impact on food during WWII! Enjoy the Allied Laboratories ads, the photograph, cookbook, and recipes!

Ads: April 1943, June 1943

Ads: July 1943, December 1942
 


Inspection of Dairy Operations, 1945
National Archives
(see resources below)


Cookbook Feature: Meat in the Meal for Health Defense, 1942
Check out this cute cover front and back!

 

Nifty chart for figuring out what to make using beef along with a chart of thriftier cuts of meat:


A good ol' vitamin chart of meats and dairy products, ca. 1942










Resources:


Farming in the 1940s: Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Service in Wartime. Veterinary Magazine Corporation, 1942.

The Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 1942-1943.

Images:

Inspection of Dairy Operations
Original caption: "Dairy plant inspection - Routine Port function. Checking sources of milk supply at Oakland Dairy, Lee Hall, Virginia, are Mr. Smith, and Captain Jacob B. Richter 0-332768, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Acting Port Veterinarian. Official photograph U.S. Army Signal Corps, Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, Newport News, Virginia." 1945.



Friday, August 20, 2021

Episode 20 - Homefront Commandos: 4-H Enlists

 

"4-H Canners Jump Into the Fight"
Story Highlight from the 
June 1943 Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife magazine



Welcome to the supplemental blog post for Episode 20: Head, Heart, Hand, & Health: 4-H Enlists (or as I later named it when I posted it - "Homefront Commandos") lol

The 4-H Club is usually something people only associate with county fairs, but as we learned in this episode, they are much more than that, and in WWII they had a much bigger role to play than just raising livestock!


4-H Club News magazine cover and two recruitment posters from the 4-H History Preservation website.
Girl in 4-H Cooking Display.
Red Lake Band of Chippewa, MN.
1941 


Girl in 4-H Cooking Display.
Red Lake Band of Chippewa, MN.
1941


Articles and news about the 4-H were not uncommon in the Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife magazine during wartime. 
"4-H Enlists"
Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife
August 1942

"4-H Enlists"
Farm Journal and Farmer's Wife
August 1942

Cookbook Feature:


Check out the 4-H Clubs in these 
Acknowledgements!

Corn-Meal Griddlecakes

Apple Butter



Apple Butter

2 lbs. tart apples

1/2 lb. brown sugar

1/2 tsp. allspice

1/4-1/2 tsp. cloves

1 tsp. cinnamon

Select tart apples, wash, remove any blemishes but do not remove skins or cores. Cut apples into quarters, cover with water and cook slowly until apples are tender. Press through sieve to remove cores, seeds, and skins. Weight and use 2 lbs. pulp. Cook until thick enough to mound on the spoon, add sugar and spices and cook until thick, stirring frequently. Store in a pint jar and once cool, store in the fridge for up to three weeks. 

(Recipe adapted from 1942 Apple Butter recipe in The Wartime Cook Book.)



RESOURCES

Books/Magazines:

Farm Journal & Farmer’s Wife Magazine. August 1942, June 1943 

Websites:

4-H History

https://4-h.org/about/history/


National 4-H History Preservation Program

https://4-hhistorypreservation.com/History/WW-II_Support/


Northern Illinois Farm Life, 1944

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFccoeCIfkI


Native Americans participation in 4-H

https://4-hhistorypreservation.com/History/Native_Americans/


Images:

Girl in 4-H Cooking Display. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Red Lake Agency, Minnesota, Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, 1941.  

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/76046483


Girl in 4-H Cooking Display (making bread).  Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Red Lake Agency, Minnesota, Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, 1941.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/76046487


Episode 22 - Americans All/Americanos Todos

"Americans All - Let's Fight for Victory" 1942-1945 (see citation below)   Welcome to the supplemental post for Episode 22. In...