Saturday, May 21, 2022

Episode 26 - Three Cheers for Trailer Town!

Staged photo of a woman checking her cooking
pot inside a camper trailer. Date unknown.

Welcome to the supplemental post for Episode 26 of the Victory Kitchen Podcast! In this episode we talked about the housing plight of Americans before and during WWII and the cramped housing situations that they dealt with. This in turn affected many housewives and the way that they were able to cook. This included the use of two burner stoves, hot plates, portable ovens, and other small appliances.

Edgewater Park trailer camp near the Ford bomber plant.
Ypsilanti, Michigan. August 1941.

Guests of trailer park playing Chinese checkers outside their trailer home.
Sarasota trailer park, Sarasota, Florida.
January 1941. (Office of War Information)

Mr. and Mrs. Wicks. Mr. Wicks is employed at the
Ford bomber plant near Ypsilanti. They are from Flint, Michigan.
They share a tent and a trailer with another family and
single man in Edgewater Park near the bomber plant. August 1941.

Son of Mr. Nichols, defense worker from Cass City, Michigan now living
in a trailer at Edgewater Park near Ypsilanti, Michigan.
Mr. Nichols works in the Ford bomber plant. August 1941.

A big thank you to my good friend Kelsey Lonie for sharing this Maclean's article with me!

Maclean's Magazine June 1, 1943
(Canada)

This is being advertised as a comfy "home away from home" vacation get away, but the reality is that many people used camper trailers like this as temporary and semi-permanent housing during the war. 
Schult Camper Trailer ad
Life magazine
July 28, 1941


Trailer Town - Three Cheers
Woman's Home Companion
July 1942

This image is part of the article "Boom Town: San Diego"
Life magazine
July 28, 1941

I mentioned this article from the August 17, 1942 Life magazine about Detroit housing. The images are definitely worth taking a look at.

Life
August 17, 1942

Life
August 17, 1942





Oak Ridge, Tennessee 
A big thanks to Jesse Williams for his interview and for providing the following photographs.


One of the flat top Oak Ridge houses that was relocated to someone's 
land after being purchased from the government after the war.

Jesse was able to salvage the kitchen from this flat top that was being torn down

The kitchen inside the flat top housing unit



The following original photographs from Oak Ridge were taken by Ed Westcott, the only person allowed to have a camera inside the top secret city. See my resources below for a link to a page all about his work. A huge thank you to Jesse Williams for sharing these photos with me! Some of these, especially the ones of the trailers and trailer camps, are more difficult to find.


The Guest House (later called The Alexander Inn)
Photo by Ed Westcott

"Colored" hutment area, taken from Y-12 water tower 
looking North. Note that it says "temporary housing"
by Ed Westcott
1944

Gamble Valley Trailer Camp, 1945
Gamble Valley Super Market is in the foreground on the left
by Ed Westcott
 

Midtown Trailer Camp
by Ed Westcott

Trailer, 1945
by Ed Westcott

Trailer Interior Living Room, 1945
by Ed Westcott

Trailer Interior Bedroom & Kitchen, 1945
by Ed Westcott

Midtown Trailer Park Family
"Wm. B. Christopher" playing dominos
(notice the photo of the serviceman in the back)
by Ed Westcott


Cookbook Feature: 
Double-Quick Cooking for Part-Time Homemakers
by Ida Bailey Allen, 1943

The recipe I tried was the Cake Crumb Pudding. It can alternatively use cookie crumbs. I really enjoyed the cake version. You can use any cake. I used a wartime recipe for Creole Spice Cake which you can find on my account on Instagram. I think a wartime chocolate cake would lend itself really well to this recipe too. I served it along with some delicious British Devon custard (Ambrosia brand - imported). Any egg-based custard would taste great with this pudding dish. 

As noted in my episode, I recommend making this recipe using a wartime cake or cookie recipe. Modern cake and cookie recipes use far too much sugar and fats and using them for this pudding recipe would change the consistency and overall end result. 









RESOURCES

WEBSITES:

New York’s Dirty Little Secret: Apartment Kitchens

1940s Portable Oven

African American Hutments

Oak Ridge Alphabet Housing

Voices of the Manhattan Project: Kattie Strickland

The Photography of Ed Westcott

Sojourner Truth Project



BOOKS/MAGAZINES:

The Girls of Atomic City by Denise Kiernan

Woman’s Home Companion. July 1942.



Maclean's Magazine. June 1, 1943. 

Double-Quick Cooking for the Part-Time Homemaker by Ida Bailey Allen. M. Barrows & Company, New York. 1943.

Cooking Behind the Fence: Recipes and recollections from the Oak Ridge ‘43 Club. Oak Ridge Heritage & Preservation Association, 2013.

Suds in Your Eye by Mary Laswell, 1946. (This book has a great companion cookbook called One-Armed Cookery also by Mary Laswell.) 

A Tower of Steel by Josephine Lawrence, 1943.

Since You Went Away by Margaret Buell Wilder, 1944.

IMAGES:

Mr. and Mrs. Wicks. Mr. Wicks is employed at the Ford bomber plant near Ypsilanti. They are from Flint, Michigan. They share a tent and a trailer with another family and single man in Edgewater Park near the bomber plant. August 1941.

Son of Mr. Nichols, defense worker from Cass City, Michigan now living in a trailer at Edgewater Park near Ypsilanti, Michigan. Mr. Nichols works in the Ford bomber plant. August 1941.

Edgewater Park trailer camp near the Ford bomber plant. Ypsilanti, Michigan. August 1941.

Guests of trailer park playing Chinese checkers outside their trailer home. Sarasota trailer park, Sarasota, Florida. January 1941. (Office of War Information)

Thursday, April 14, 2022

Episode 25 - By Rod, Gun & Steel

 



Welcome to Episode 25's supplemental blog post. This episode focused on hunting, fishing, and trapping in wartime America and how that fed into the larger picture of food rationing. 


Below are three great propaganda posters from the National Archives. Two are focused on the importance of the fishing industry. The third is part of a smaller, but no less important campaign that was led to educate hunters and campers about being responsible with their matches, cigarettes, and pipes to prevent forest fires. Because, like the poster points out, forest fires destroy game. 

And game = food for people. 

 





I talk about this piece of legislation introduced by North Dakota to protect wild game and conservation efforts from ideas that would wipe out wild game in the name of the war emergency situation.

House Concurrent Resolution B  from the
28th Legislative Assembly of North Dakota
(as mentioned in this episode)
"What About Shells? A Vital Conservation Question"
Field & Stream magazine
April 1943
 
And here's the Florida ad I mention about deep sea fishing being forbidden with those tempting marlins in the pictures. 
Sports Afield magazine
February 1944

I mentioned this ad in the podcast, but didn't remember exactly where I saw it - well, here it is! So, apparently, this company supplied flies in the emergency kits for the U.S. pilots. So cool!

Sports Afield magazine
February 1944

I talk about this article in the podcast as well. The picture of one season's take of fox furs as shown at the bottom of the article is pretty striking.

Fur Fish Game magazine
February 1945
 

Field & Stream 
April 1943

A big thank you to my friend Kelsey for spotting the following ad in one of her Life magazines and sharing it with me!
Life Magazine
13 March 1944

I wanted to show the small collection of hunting and fishing magazines I acquired as source materials for this episode. I tried to gather issues from throughout the war period and on various topics. It's quite the fascinating research topic, and this part of the American homefront story is full of fascinating things to study!

 

 



Cookbook Highlight: 
Men in Aprons by Lawrence A. Keating published in 1944. My copy is from March 1945.





Spice Pot Roast of Beef with Vegetables

For this dessert, keep in mind that the frosting is not the greatest recipe and needs some adjustment. I recommend only cooking it to soft ball stage. 



Banana Cake with Caramel Frosting


RESOURCES

National Wildlife Week

Books & Magazines:

Field & Stream, April 1943

Fur Fish Game, January 1945

Fur Fish Game, February 1945

Hunting and Fishing, October 1944

Sports Afield, February 1944

Sports Afield, July 1942

Sports Afield, November 1942

Life Magazine, 13 March 1944

Books:

The Sportsman’s Way: How to Prepare Wild Game & Waterfowl, 1945

Men in Aprons by Lawrence A. Keating, 1944

Images:

America’s Fishing Fleet and Men
https://catalog.archives.gov/id/513809

Fish is a Fighting Food
https://catalog.archives.gov/id/513819

Forest Fires Destroy Game
https://catalog.archives.gov/id/514321



Thursday, January 27, 2022

Episode 24: Captives - Part 2: Japanese American Internees & POWs

Mission San Jose, California. High School girl of Japanese ancestry assisting her family in the strawberry field prior to evacuation. She plans to attend special graduation exercises for evacuation students being held on the following day. 5/5/1942.



Welcome to the supplemental blog post for Episode 24 discussing the work of Japanese & Japanese American Internees as well as German and Italian prisoners of war on the homefront of American during WWII. 

Below are photographs from the United States Library of Congress and the Unites States National Archives. You can find the citations with links to view the photos at the bottom of the blog post.




Manzanar, Calif. June 1942. Ichiro Okumura, 22, left, from Venice, Calif., thinning young plants in a two-acre field of white radishes at the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.


Tule Lake, Calif. July 1942. K. Fukushima, 38, farmer evacuee from Clarksburg, adjusting the flow of seed potatoes on a feeding rotary potato planter. Five hundred acres of potatoes will be planted on the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese descent at Tule Lake.

(Summary: Photograph shows K. Fukushima working with agricultural machinery at the concentration camp where Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II. Prisoners grew crops to supplement the poor quality food served in the camps, although sometimes administrators sold the crops on the open market.)



Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of crew of 20 working in field Number 4, hoeing corn on the farm project at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. 6/30/1942.



Florin, California. Strawberry truck farmer who came to the United States from Japan in 1902, is seen packing strawberries on his farm a few days before evacuation. He has six American born children, with one son serving in the United States Army at Camp Robinson. 5/11/1942.



Mountain View, California. Henry Mitarai, 36, in the onion field on his mechanized farm, prior to evacuation. His payroll ran as much as $38,000.00 a year. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.



Sunnyvale, California. Stringing poles in Santa Clara County bean field. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.



San Lorenzo, California. Evacuation of farmers of Japanese descent resulted in agricultural labor shortage on Pacific Coast acreage, such as the garlic field in Santa Clara County. High School boys were recruited to off-set the shortage. Farmers and other evacuees will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 5/5/1942.



Transfer of the evacuees from the Assembly Centers to War Relocation Centers
was conducted by the Army. 1942. 
Train lists were made up so that families would not be separated and in most instances groups associated by residence in pre-evacuation days were kept together. Here is a busy scene of family groups identifying their hand baggage prior to departure from the Assembly Center at Santa Anita, California.



San Francisco, Calif., April 1942. First-graders, some of Japanese ancestry, at the Weill public school pledging allegiance to the United States flag. The evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War relocation authority centers for the duration of the war. 
See citation below.



"Prisoners of war (PWs) march from compound in the morning for their work detail in a factory. Hoopeston, Illinois." Original Field Number: 648-34-85. 8/1944.



PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDING 7561, GUARD TOWER No. 1. (Building 7571, Company Supply, is in the background). Fort McCoy photograph #B-31, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI


PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDINGS 7613, 7614, 7614, 7616, AND 7617, BARRACKS, AND BUILDING 7619, KITCHEN AND MESS HALL.


Here is the Cookbook Feature for this episode; Wartime Cooking Guide, published in 1943!

Wartime Cooking Guide, 1943

Raspberry Turnovers

Raspberry Turnovers, 1943.


RESOURCES

Japanese American Prisoners

Websites:

Japanese Internment Camps

https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation


Japanese American Incarceration During WWII (fantastic primary resources)

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation


Japanese American Internment Camps During WWII (online exhibits for Tule Lake & Topaz)

https://lib.utah.edu/collections/photo-exhibits/japanese-American-Internment.php


Japanese American Internment

https://www.ushistory.org/us/51e.asp


Japanese American National Museum

https://www.janm.org/


Books:

Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans During World War II by Martin W. Sandler


Library of Congress Images:

War Relocation of Japanese Americans Photograph Collection 

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/search/?va=exact&sp=1&co%21=coll&st=gallery&q=LOT+10617


Ansel Adams photograph collection of Manzanar War Relocation Camp

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/search/?q=LOT%2010479&fi=number&op=PHRASE&va=exact&co!=coll&sg=true&st=gallery


Transfer of the evacuees from the Assembly Centers to War Relocation Centers was conducted by the Army, 1942. Train lists were made up so that families would not be separated and in most instances groups associated by residence in pre-evacuation days were kept together. Here is a busy scene of family groups identifying their hand baggage prior to departure from the Assembly Center at Santa Anita, California.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003689108/resource/


San Francisco, Calif., April 1942. First-graders, some of Japanese ancestry, at the Weill public school pledging allegiance to the United States flag. The evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War relocation authority centers for the duration of the war

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001705948/


Manzanar, Calif. June 1942. Ichiro Okumura, 22, left, from Venice, Calif., thinning young plants in a two-acre field of white radishes at the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2021647208/


Tule Lake, Calif. July 1942. K. Fukushima, 38, farmer evacuee from Clarksburg, adjusting the flow of seed potatoes on a feeding rotary potato planter. Five hundred acres of potatoes will be planted on the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese descent at Tule Lake.

(Full Summary: Photograph shows K. Fukushima working with agricultural machinery at the concentration camp where Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II. Prisoners grew crops to supplement the poor quality food served in the camps, although sometimes administrators sold the crops on the open market.)

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2021650553/


National Archives Images:


Mountain View, California. Henry Mitarai, 36, in the onion field on his mechanized farm, prior to evacuation. His payroll ran as much as $38,000.00 a year. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537617


San Lorenzo, California. Evacuation of farmers of Japanese descent resulted in agricultural labor shortage on Pacific Coast acreage, such as the garlic field in Santa Clara County. High School boys were recruited to off-set the shortage. Farmers and other evacuees will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 5/5/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/536477


Mission San Jose, California. High School girl of Japanese ancestry assisting her family in the strawberry field prior to evacuation. She plans to attend special graduation exercises for evacuation students being held on the following day. 5/5/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537860


Sunnyvale, California. Stringing poles in Santa Clara County bean field. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537597


Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of crew of 20 working in field Number 4, hoeing corn on the farm project at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. 6/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/538053


Florin, California. Strawberry truck farmer who came to the United States from Japan in 1902, is seen packing strawberries on his farm a few days before evacuation. He has six American born children, with one son serving in the United States Army at Camp Robinson. 5/11/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537845


POWs (German & Italian)

Websites:

List of WWII United States Prisoner of War Camps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_War_II_prisoner-of-war_camps_in_the_United_States


Indiana Historical Society (webpage about a past exhibit on Italian POWs in Indiana. If you ever get a chance to visit the IHS, their exhibits are so excellent!)

https://indianahistory.org/stories/you-are-there-1943-italian-pows-at-atterbury/


Indiana Historical Bureau of the Indiana State Library - Corn, Tomatoes, & POWs: Hoosier Agriculture During World War II

https://blog.history.in.gov/corn-tomatoes-pows-hoosier-agriculture-during-world-war-ii/


Sidnaw, MI WWII POW Camp

https://ss.sites.mtu.edu/mhugl/2015/10/11/sidnaw-mi-wwii-pow-camp/


POWs Work in the Fields - Nebraska

https://livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe40s/money_04.html

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/german-pows-on-the-american-homefront-141009996/


POWS in Maryland

https://www.germanpulse.com/2012/02/23/stories-from-camp-frederick-german-world-war-ii-pows-in-frederick-maryland-part-1/


Follow Up Interviews With Former German POWs Held In America

http://airportjournals.com/as-farm-boys-fought-in-europe-german-pows-did-the-work-they-left-behind/


Ft. Meade Converted to POW Camp in WWII

https://www.baltimoresun.com/maryland/laurel/ph-ll-history-ft-meade2-20160407-story.html


Books

Michigan POW Camps in World War II by Gregory D. Sumner


Library of Congress Images:

PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDINGS 7613, 7614, 7614, 7616, AND 7617, BARRACKS, AND BUILDING 7619, KITCHEN AND MESS HALL.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/wi0229.photos.170988p/


PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDING 7561, GUARD TOWER No. 1. (Building 7571, Company Supply, is in the background). Fort McCoy photograph #B-31, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/wi0229.photos.170986p/


National Archives Images:

"Prisoners of war (PWs) march from compound in the morning for their work detail in a factory. Hoopeston, Illinois." Original Field Number: 648-34-85. 8/1944.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/148727418


Episode 26 - Three Cheers for Trailer Town!

Staged photo of a woman checking her cooking pot inside a camper trailer. Date unknown. Welcome to the supplemental post for Episode 26 of t...