Thursday, January 27, 2022

Episode 24: Captives - Part 2: Japanese American Internees & POWs

Mission San Jose, California. High School girl of Japanese ancestry assisting her family in the strawberry field prior to evacuation. She plans to attend special graduation exercises for evacuation students being held on the following day. 5/5/1942.



Welcome to the supplemental blog post for Episode 24 discussing the work of Japanese & Japanese American Internees as well as German and Italian prisoners of war on the homefront of American during WWII. 

Below are photographs from the United States Library of Congress and the Unites States National Archives. You can find the citations with links to view the photos at the bottom of the blog post.




Manzanar, Calif. June 1942. Ichiro Okumura, 22, left, from Venice, Calif., thinning young plants in a two-acre field of white radishes at the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.


Tule Lake, Calif. July 1942. K. Fukushima, 38, farmer evacuee from Clarksburg, adjusting the flow of seed potatoes on a feeding rotary potato planter. Five hundred acres of potatoes will be planted on the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese descent at Tule Lake.

(Summary: Photograph shows K. Fukushima working with agricultural machinery at the concentration camp where Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II. Prisoners grew crops to supplement the poor quality food served in the camps, although sometimes administrators sold the crops on the open market.)



Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of crew of 20 working in field Number 4, hoeing corn on the farm project at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. 6/30/1942.



Florin, California. Strawberry truck farmer who came to the United States from Japan in 1902, is seen packing strawberries on his farm a few days before evacuation. He has six American born children, with one son serving in the United States Army at Camp Robinson. 5/11/1942.



Mountain View, California. Henry Mitarai, 36, in the onion field on his mechanized farm, prior to evacuation. His payroll ran as much as $38,000.00 a year. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.



Sunnyvale, California. Stringing poles in Santa Clara County bean field. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.



San Lorenzo, California. Evacuation of farmers of Japanese descent resulted in agricultural labor shortage on Pacific Coast acreage, such as the garlic field in Santa Clara County. High School boys were recruited to off-set the shortage. Farmers and other evacuees will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 5/5/1942.



Transfer of the evacuees from the Assembly Centers to War Relocation Centers
was conducted by the Army. 1942. 
Train lists were made up so that families would not be separated and in most instances groups associated by residence in pre-evacuation days were kept together. Here is a busy scene of family groups identifying their hand baggage prior to departure from the Assembly Center at Santa Anita, California.



San Francisco, Calif., April 1942. First-graders, some of Japanese ancestry, at the Weill public school pledging allegiance to the United States flag. The evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War relocation authority centers for the duration of the war. 
See citation below.



"Prisoners of war (PWs) march from compound in the morning for their work detail in a factory. Hoopeston, Illinois." Original Field Number: 648-34-85. 8/1944.



PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDING 7561, GUARD TOWER No. 1. (Building 7571, Company Supply, is in the background). Fort McCoy photograph #B-31, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI


PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDINGS 7613, 7614, 7614, 7616, AND 7617, BARRACKS, AND BUILDING 7619, KITCHEN AND MESS HALL.


Here is the Cookbook Feature for this episode; Wartime Cooking Guide, published in 1943!

Wartime Cooking Guide, 1943

Raspberry Turnovers

Raspberry Turnovers, 1943.


RESOURCES

Japanese American Prisoners

Websites:

Japanese Internment Camps

https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation


Japanese American Incarceration During WWII (fantastic primary resources)

https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation


Japanese American Internment Camps During WWII (online exhibits for Tule Lake & Topaz)

https://lib.utah.edu/collections/photo-exhibits/japanese-American-Internment.php


Japanese American Internment

https://www.ushistory.org/us/51e.asp


Japanese American National Museum

https://www.janm.org/


Books:

Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans During World War II by Martin W. Sandler


Library of Congress Images:

War Relocation of Japanese Americans Photograph Collection 

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/search/?va=exact&sp=1&co%21=coll&st=gallery&q=LOT+10617


Ansel Adams photograph collection of Manzanar War Relocation Camp

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/search/?q=LOT%2010479&fi=number&op=PHRASE&va=exact&co!=coll&sg=true&st=gallery


Transfer of the evacuees from the Assembly Centers to War Relocation Centers was conducted by the Army, 1942. Train lists were made up so that families would not be separated and in most instances groups associated by residence in pre-evacuation days were kept together. Here is a busy scene of family groups identifying their hand baggage prior to departure from the Assembly Center at Santa Anita, California.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003689108/resource/


San Francisco, Calif., April 1942. First-graders, some of Japanese ancestry, at the Weill public school pledging allegiance to the United States flag. The evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War relocation authority centers for the duration of the war

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001705948/


Manzanar, Calif. June 1942. Ichiro Okumura, 22, left, from Venice, Calif., thinning young plants in a two-acre field of white radishes at the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2021647208/


Tule Lake, Calif. July 1942. K. Fukushima, 38, farmer evacuee from Clarksburg, adjusting the flow of seed potatoes on a feeding rotary potato planter. Five hundred acres of potatoes will be planted on the War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese descent at Tule Lake.

(Full Summary: Photograph shows K. Fukushima working with agricultural machinery at the concentration camp where Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II. Prisoners grew crops to supplement the poor quality food served in the camps, although sometimes administrators sold the crops on the open market.)

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2021650553/


National Archives Images:


Mountain View, California. Henry Mitarai, 36, in the onion field on his mechanized farm, prior to evacuation. His payroll ran as much as $38,000.00 a year. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537617


San Lorenzo, California. Evacuation of farmers of Japanese descent resulted in agricultural labor shortage on Pacific Coast acreage, such as the garlic field in Santa Clara County. High School boys were recruited to off-set the shortage. Farmers and other evacuees will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 5/5/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/536477


Mission San Jose, California. High School girl of Japanese ancestry assisting her family in the strawberry field prior to evacuation. She plans to attend special graduation exercises for evacuation students being held on the following day. 5/5/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537860


Sunnyvale, California. Stringing poles in Santa Clara County bean field. Farmers and other evacuees of Japanese descent will be given opportunities to follow their callings at War Relocation Authority centers where they will spend the duration. 3/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537597


Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of crew of 20 working in field Number 4, hoeing corn on the farm project at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. 6/30/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/538053


Florin, California. Strawberry truck farmer who came to the United States from Japan in 1902, is seen packing strawberries on his farm a few days before evacuation. He has six American born children, with one son serving in the United States Army at Camp Robinson. 5/11/1942.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/537845


POWs (German & Italian)

Websites:

List of WWII United States Prisoner of War Camps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_War_II_prisoner-of-war_camps_in_the_United_States


Indiana Historical Society (webpage about a past exhibit on Italian POWs in Indiana. If you ever get a chance to visit the IHS, their exhibits are so excellent!)

https://indianahistory.org/stories/you-are-there-1943-italian-pows-at-atterbury/


Indiana Historical Bureau of the Indiana State Library - Corn, Tomatoes, & POWs: Hoosier Agriculture During World War II

https://blog.history.in.gov/corn-tomatoes-pows-hoosier-agriculture-during-world-war-ii/


Sidnaw, MI WWII POW Camp

https://ss.sites.mtu.edu/mhugl/2015/10/11/sidnaw-mi-wwii-pow-camp/


POWs Work in the Fields - Nebraska

https://livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe40s/money_04.html

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/german-pows-on-the-american-homefront-141009996/


POWS in Maryland

https://www.germanpulse.com/2012/02/23/stories-from-camp-frederick-german-world-war-ii-pows-in-frederick-maryland-part-1/


Follow Up Interviews With Former German POWs Held In America

http://airportjournals.com/as-farm-boys-fought-in-europe-german-pows-did-the-work-they-left-behind/


Ft. Meade Converted to POW Camp in WWII

https://www.baltimoresun.com/maryland/laurel/ph-ll-history-ft-meade2-20160407-story.html


Books

Michigan POW Camps in World War II by Gregory D. Sumner


Library of Congress Images:

PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDINGS 7613, 7614, 7614, 7616, AND 7617, BARRACKS, AND BUILDING 7619, KITCHEN AND MESS HALL.

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/wi0229.photos.170988p/


PRISONER OF WAR AREA 'A,' BUILDING 7561, GUARD TOWER No. 1. (Building 7571, Company Supply, is in the background). Fort McCoy photograph #B-31, undated. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/wi0229.photos.170986p/


National Archives Images:

"Prisoners of war (PWs) march from compound in the morning for their work detail in a factory. Hoopeston, Illinois." Original Field Number: 648-34-85. 8/1944.

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/148727418


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